English | Russian   
Central Asia
South Caucasus
SPF Issyk-Kul Forum
Silk Route
Research Centres
Web Links
Join the Mailing List

Central Asia and South Caucasus Affairs: 2006
Central Asia and South Caucasus Affairs: 2006
Regional Security Issues: 2006
Regional Security Issues: 2006
Between the Black and Caspian Seas: New Challenges and Opportunities for the South Caucasus
Between the Black and Caspian Seas: New Challenges and Opportunities for the South Caucasus
Regional Security Issues
Regional Security Issues
The South Caucasus as a Part of the Wider Europe
The South Caucasus as a Part of the Wider Europe
Turkmenistan   Last Updated ( Saturday, 16 September 2006 )

In the middle of the 19th century Turkmenistan was integrated into the Russian Empire. After the October Revolution Soviet power was established on its territory. It attained the status of a Soviet Republic in 1924. With the collapse of the Soviet Union Turkmenistan declared its independence in 1991. Today the republic of Turkmenistan is a sovereign country. However the former soviet leader Saparmurat Niyazov retained his post as the president. Even though the constitution of Turkmenistan states that there are two houses of the parliament, Turkmenistan is a one party state where the opposition is not tolerated and can be found only outside the country. Saparmurat Niyazov has been declared president for life.

Turkmenistan is the only Central Asian country which has an almost homogeneous ethnic structure. Most of its citizens are ethnic Turkmens. The majority of the population
lives in the oasis in the south of the country.

Turkmenistan possesses the world's fifth-largest reserves of natural gas as well as substantial oil resources. The major agricultural production (one half of its irrigated land) is cotton. Turkmen exports include gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, cotton fiber and textiles.

It is a member of the United Nations, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Partnership for Peace, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). It belongs to the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) and the Economic Cooperation Organization--comprised of the five Central Asian countries, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.

Official name: Turkmenistan

Area:  488,100 sq km

Borders:   Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

Capital:   Ashgabat

Provinces:  5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat)

Population: 5,042,920 (July 2006 est.)

Ethnic groups:  Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003) 

Birth rate:  27.61 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)

Language:  Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Religion:  Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Currency:   Turkmen Manat (TMM)

GDP (purchasing power parity): $39.54 billion (2005 est.)

GDP per capita (PPP):  $8,000 (2005 est.) 

For further information see:

The CIA World Factbook. The latest and the most updated country information.

BBC Country Profile

The website offers the information on the government structure of Turkmenistan, its society, economy, etc. The site is founded by the Democratic Union of journalists of Turkmenistan.